TUOLSÛNG INAWP DÂN: PHAIRAM LE TLÂNGRAMAH

Ziektu: Dr. Lal Dena

Which is the best government? That which teaches us to govern ourselves.-Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe.

Tuolsûnga inawp dân ti hin district le khawtlânga inawp dân ei inkâwktir bȋk deu. India ramin zalênna a hmua inthawka vawisûn chena Manipur phaizâwl le tlângrama tuolsûng inawp dân khaikhin malamin hril ei tum a, ziek ding tam sienkhawm Sura favâng enin zuk mel thuok chau ei tih. A hmasa taka Manipur phaizâwla tuolsûng inawp dân a tlângpui chau hril hmasâ’ng ei ta, chu hnungah tlângrama inawp dân hril ei tih.

Representative image of village life.

  1. Manipur phaizâwla tuolsûng inawp dân: Manipur phaizâwlah chun kum 1961-a inthawk khan panchayati raj institution hmangin tuolsûng rorêlna an a lo ni tah a. Indian constitution 73rd le 74th amendment a hung ni khan Manipur sawrkâr chun Manipur Panchayati Raj Act, 1994 a pasi thar nâwk a. Chu dungzui chun khawtlâng le district-a tuolsûng inawp dân a hnuoia ang hin a hung sukdanglam tah a nih.

1:1.Gram Sabha: Gram Sabha chu Vaiawng a nih a, mipui inkhawm (assembly) tina a nih a. Gram Sabha chu khuosûnga electoral roll-a vote thlâk thei chin hming ziek po po member inkhâwmna inpui a nih. Hi inpui hi khuotlâng hmasâwnna le ţhatna ding, ha a ti ang ang zamin ro a rêl hlak. Member po po hmun sâwma ţhea hmunkhat chauh khawmin dân siemin ro a rêl thei. A ûl ang dungzuiin thla ruk dana inkhâwm hlak a nih. Hi inkhâwm hi Gram Panchayat-a Pradhan (chairperson) or Up-Pradhan (Vice Chairperson)-in a keihruoi hlak . Gram Panchayat-in Gram Sabha thurêl dinghai a lo buotsai a, khawsûng hmasâwnna ding sum hmang dân ding tlângpui (budget) a lo buotsai hmasa hlak. 

1:2.Gram Panchayat. Phaizâwlah chu vêng (leikai) khata khawm mi 2000 chuong dâm an um hlak a. Mipui 350 umna peia Gram Panchayat-ah member pakhat pei an thlang thei. Mipui 2500 umnaah chun Chairperson (Pradhan) hangsain member 7 an thlang thei. Thlangtuhai chu MLA thlang huna electoral-a hming inziek hai tho kha an nih.  Thlang tling hai chun anni sûnga member pakhat chu Vice-Chairperson (Up-Pradhan), Chairperson um naw or damnaw chânga aiawtu ding an thlang hlak. An term chu kum nga a nih hlak. An sinthaw tlângpui chu hieng ang hi a nih: Gram Sabha huop sûnga development sin hrim hrim, lohma, ran vai, ngakul siem, ramhmângpui enkawl, kutthemthiemna- puonkhâwng le thiemhnâng, rural housing, tuikhur, lampui – leilâk, culvert, tuiluongna le leilâk daw, retheina sukbo, primary le secondary sikul enkai, adult education, library, cultural activities, bazaar, khawtlâng hrisêlna, nuhmei le naupang enkawlna, ruolbanlohai hangpui, bufai sem, kâwlphemeivar enkawl le khawtlâng hmasâwnna hrim hrim. Gram Sabha pakhat huom sûngah hin hnam hnufuol an um chun Gram Panchayat-ah an aiawtu ding reserve seat siem a ni hlak. Chubâka, member 7 umnaah nuhmei ta ding seat 2 nêka tlâwm lo reserve a ni hlak a, nuhmei khawm Chairperson or Vice Chairperson an nih hlak. 

1:3. Zilla Parishad (District Council): Gram Panchayat chungah hin Zilla Parishad a um nâwk a. Mipui 15000 umnaa member pakhat pei Zilla Parishad-a ding an thlang hlak a. Mipui tam le tlâwm zungzuiin Zilla Parishad-ah member an um hlak. Hi taka Chairperson chu Adhyaksha ti a nih a, Vice Chairperson chu Up-Adhyaksha ti a nih. Entirna Zilla Parishad-ah hin member 15 thlang ni hai sien, hi district huom sungah hin Schedule Caste/Scheduled Tribe an um chun an tam dân dungzuiin reserved seat a um hlak a; chun member 15 umnaah chun nuhmei ta dingin hmun thuma hea hmun khat (seat 5) reserve a nih hlak. Chairperson or Vice Chairperson khawm nuhmeiin an hluo hlak. Gram Panchayat ang bawkin an term khawm kum 5 a nih. Gram Panchayat-a Chairperson-hai zaah 10 le MLA  Zilla Parishad-ah hin member an ni ve hlak. An sinthaw tlângpui chu Gram Panchayat-hai sinthaw, a chunga ei hril hai po po khi district level-ah an thaw hlak.

Zilla Parishad hnuoia Standing Committee an siem hlak a; chuong hai chu General Standing Committee, Finance, Audit and Planning Committee, Social Justice Committee, Education and Health Committee, Agriculture and Industry Committee le Works Committee. Standing Committee tinah hin member 5 nêka tlâwm lo an um seng a, Chairperson-hai chu ex-officio member an ni hlak. Committee tin hin an subject dungzuiin thuneina le mawphurna an nei seng. Zilla Parishad-ah hin Deputy Commissioner rank hnuoi ni lo, sawrkârin Chief Executive Officer a ruot hlak a, Gram Panchayat-ah chun SDO rank hnuoi ni lovin Chief Executive Officer-in Secretary sin a thaw hlak. 

Phairama tuolsûng inawp dân hi Indian constitution-a innghat a nih a. Hnam tlâwm lem (minority) hai ta dingin an tam dân dungzuiin seat reservation seat an nei nghien nghien. Nuhmei ta ding bȋkin Gram Panchayat le Zilla Parishad-haiah khin seat zaah sawmthum reserve a ni el bâk a, hmun tam takah nuhmei Chairperson-in an ţhang ve hlak. Chubâka, member-hai po po khin sum honorarium le sitting  allowance an hmuh hlak. Sum khawm consolidatred fund an nei nghien nghien seng. Power an hau êm êm a, Indian constitution-a 11th scheduled khawm an phursa thei.

2.1: The Manipur State Hill People (Administration) Regulation, 1947: India-in zalênna a hmu char khan Hill Regulation Act hi hmang ţan a nih a. Khuo leiman pe thei in sâwmhni le a chung tieng po khan Village Authority an nei thei a. Hi Village Authority chungah hin Circle Officer inrawinain Circle Council member panga umna siem a ni nâwk a. Hi inawp dân hi kum 1956 chen khan hmang a nih. 

2.2: Tlângrama tuolsûng inawp dân: Kum 1996 khan parliament-ah The Provisions of Panchayati (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 tlângram tribal area-ah tribal customary laws le inmilin hmang ve nisien tiin bill an pasi a, vawisûn chen hin sukpuitling a la ni nawh. A harsatna pakhat chu tlângram chu khuo chite te, khaw pali panga keibûm khawma Gram Panchayat pakhat tling thei khawm a vâng. Entirna’n khuo pakhat population sângkhat vêl umnaah chun member pathum an nei thei âwk. Lampui ţhat tâwk naw leiin Gram Panchayat-a khuo iemani zât keibûm chu remchâng a ni naw bawk. Sienkhawm Arunachal Pradesh-ah ruok chu Panchayati institution hi hlawtling taka hmang mêk a ni thu hriet a nih.  Arunachal Pradesh-a Panchayati institution an hmang enfie hnunga, Manipur tlângrama hmang ve thei dân a um am? ti dâm hi ngaituo zawm tlâk a nih. Annawleh, Mizorama Village Council inthlang le a sinthaw dân saw ei inmilpui tak lem dȋ’m? ti khawm hi ngaituo nawn ţûl a nih.

2.3: Manipur (Village Authority in the Hill Areas) Act, 1956: Kum 1956 khan hi Village Authority Act hi tlângram tuolsûng inawpna dingin pasi a hung nih nâwk a, tuta ei hmang lai zing hi a nih. Tlângrama Panchayati Institution hmang a ni naw khawm a, Gram Panchayat angpui bêkin  Village Authority Act hi siem danglam a ûl tah a. Village Council inthlang dân le a mawphurnahai a khelneng a khawlnawngin hril nâwng ei tih; a tawi zâwngin, Village Authority-hai chu sum hmang ding nei lo, allowance tak ngiel khawm nei lo, nuhmei representative khawm um bawk lo, job card-a sinthawna bâk hi sum hmuna dudak a nei nawh. Hieng ang  Village Authority power le mawphurna nei lo, sarubawk hi Manipur sawrkâr chun kum 65 tawp a mȋ’n hmangtir tah hnung khawma siemţhat (amendment) tumna lungril khawm rorêlna khâwl cheltuhaiin an la tum naw niin  ân lang. Manipur Hill Areas (Acquisition of Chief’s Rights) Act, 1967 pasi hlak chu lalhai dodâlna leiin hmang theiin a um naw zing bawk. Insitution of Chiefship a um zing dâm hi a ha am, annawleh a chunga ei hril tah angin unau Mizorama an thaw dân zui ve am a ha? ti hai dâm hriltlâng a ûl hle tah.

2.4: The Manipur (Hill Areas) District Council Act, 1972: Kum 1972-a inthawk khan District Council tehlêm ei hmang an a. Kum iemani zât ei hmang hnungin Sith Schedule ngênin sâwt tak  District Council inthlang thei lovin ei um nâwk a. Kum 2008-in amendment thawin sawrkârin a hmaa District Council iemani zât belsa le sukanglamin a mi hung siempêk nâwk a; lungawi takin tuchen hin ei la hmang zing chu a nih. Ni khat lai el khan Hill Areas Committee (HAC) chun the Manipur (Hill Areas) Autonomous District Council Bill,2021 thar assembly-ah ngaituo dingin an hei pêklût a.  Hi bill thar hin bung riet vela induong a nih. Hi laia thufûn laimu tak chu Indian Constitution Article 371C dungzuia district council-hai thuneina insêng lem (more autonomy) pêkna a nih. Hi article hin iem a hril a ei ti chun state legislative-a committee ha taka sin thaw dinga India President-in state Governor mawphurna bȋk a hrilna a nih. Chuong lâwm lâwma ngaipawimaw uma ân lang naw lai zingin hi bill hi la ngaituo nâwk dinga sie a nih ti chu hril tam ngai lovin ei hriet seng

Thu tlângkâwmna: Phairama tuolsûng le tlângrama tuolsûng inawp dân a tlângpui chau ei târlanga inthawk khawm hin phairama Gram Panchayat le Zilla Parishad-hai power le mawphurna insâng bȋk zie ei hmuh. Sum le paia an hnienghnâr bȋk zie khawm ei hmuh.  Tlângram tuolsung rorinrêlna chu 19thcentury-ah a la um zing ti thei a nih. Hieng anga state pakhat sûnga khawm democratization process ânkhuongruol naw chun, mipui rorêlna khawm fe tluong tak tak thei ngai naw nih a, development khawm inkhuongruol ngai naw nih. Chuleiin, tlângram tuolsûng inawp dân bȋkah hin thawmâkmaw tam tak a la um. Mipui aiawa rorêlna khâwl cheltuhaiin an hriet naw/ngaisak naw a ni chun, mipuiin ei inhriettir le mawr hi thawmâkmaw a nih ti hi hre thar ei tiu.

©2021 Hmasawnna Thar/Hmarram (Oct 24, 2021)

 219 total views,  3 views today

Comments

comments

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Start typing and press Enter to search

Jai Hmarram!